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آموزش حرفه ای زبان انگلیسی،آموزش زبان انگلیسی،زبان انگلیسی

آموزش حرفه ای زبان انگلیسی،آموزش زبان انگلیسی،زبان انگلیسی

دوشنبه 7 فروردین 1391, 08:39 ب.ظ

When an official of a government or business is acting dishonestly, we say that this
person is corrupt. Corruption is a serious problem in many countries around the world.
There are several different kinds of corrupt practices, including bribes, kickbacks,
nepotism, and embezzlement.

 
A bribe is a payment of money or some other benefit, in exchange for a decision that
would not otherwise be made. For example, an accused criminal might bribe a judge so
that the judge would make a decision of "not guilty." Another example is that a business
owner might bribe a government official so that the official would allow the construction
of very unsafe buildings.  
A kickback is similar to a bribe, except that the official receives some part of the money
in a dishonest business deal. For example, governments sometimes decide which
company should build a road. A company might offer money to the government official
who makes the decision, so that this company will be chosen, even if it is not the best
company for the job.  
Nepotism happens when an official unfairly gives advantages to his or her relatives. For
example, a government official might hire a brother or sister to do a job even though
other people would be much better qualified for the job. Of course, all of us want to help
our relatives, but it is wrong to do this at the expense of the public.  
Embezzlement happens when an official secretly steals some money from a company or
government. For example, a manager at a company might secretly move some of the
company's money to his or her own bank account, or that manager might lie about his or
her expenses in order to receive more payment from the company.  
Corruption has very bad effects on people, in several ways. Sometimes it can lead to
very dangerous situations. One example of this is when unsafe construction projects are
approved by officials who have been bribed. Another example is when criminals are
freed as a result of bribes. Also, a country's economy can be damaged by corruption. For
example, if companies must pay bribes in order to do business, then they may decide to
leave the country. Also, if people's tax money is stolen by corrupt officials, this makes
the people poorer. In addition, when company officials are corrupt, it makes the company
less able to compete with other companies.  
How can corruption be stopped? An important step is for each person to decide not to
act in ways that are corrupt. People must agree to take this problem seriously. Also, each
company and each government must have strict rules about corruption. It must be very
clear to all employees-from the lowest to the highest-that corruption is totally
unacceptable.
corrupt:
corrupt
using your power in a dishonest or illegal way in order to get an advantage for yourself
ᅳopposite incorruptible
Corrupt judges have taken millions of dollars in bribes.

______________________
corruption:
corruption
dishonest, illegal, or immoral behaviour, especially from someone with power
*officials charged with bribery and corruption
*The investigation uncovered widespread corruption within the police force.
political/official corruption

______________________
bribe:
bribe
to illegally give someone, especially a public official, money or a gift in order to persuade them to do something for you
The only way we could get into the country was by bribing the border officials.
bribe somebody to do something
He bribed one of the prison guards to smuggle out a note.

Another Source

to influence the behavior or judgment of (esp. someone in a position of power or trust) unfairly or illegally by offering them favors or gifts: She was charged with attempting to bribe a police officer. | I bribed him into giving me the documents. |  They tried to bribe the judge to acquit them. | (fig.) The child was bribed with a piece of cake to go to bed quietly.
*the employee admitted that he had been receiving bribes   
*bribable   
*he tried to bribe the judge


______________________
kickback:
kickback
informal
money that someone pays secretly and dishonestly in return for someone's help
ᅳsynonym bribe


______________________
nepotism:
nepotism
the practice of unfairly giving the best jobs to members of your family when you are in a position of power

______________________
embezzle:
to steal money from the place where you work
Two managers were charged with embezzling $400,000.
the accountant embezzled the bank's money   

ᅳembezzlement noun [uncountable]

ᅳembezzler noun [countable]

______________________
construction:
construction
▶BUILDING SOMETHING◀
[uncountable] the process of building things such as houses, bridges, roads etc
construction of
the construction of a new airport
under construction
(=being built) The hotel is currently under construction.
a road construction project
construction workers


______________________
at the expense of somebody/something:

if something is done at the expense of someone or something else, it is only achieved by doing something that could harm the other person or thing
*he was successful in business but it was done at the expense of his health

_____________________
free:
▶RELEASE◀
to allow someone to leave prison or somewhere they have been kept as a prisoner
ᅳsynonym releaseHe expects to be freed quite soon.The terrorists have at last agreed to free the hostages.
free somebody from something
She was freed from prison last week



دسته بندی : آموزش سطح متوسط ,
برچسب ها : کورس سطح متوسط مکالمه , آموزش مکالمه قدم به قدم سطح متوسط , آموزش سطح متوسط , برچسب ها : آموزش زبان انگلیسی , آموزش مکالمه زبان انگلیسی , آموزش قدم به قدم زبان انگلیسی , آموزش گام به گام زبان انگلیسی , مکالمه زبان انگلیسی , آموزش مکالمه زبان , آموزش مکالمه شنیداری ,









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