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آموزش حرفه ای زبان انگلیسی،آموزش زبان انگلیسی،زبان انگلیسی

آموزش حرفه ای زبان انگلیسی،آموزش زبان انگلیسی،زبان انگلیسی

یکشنبه 28 اسفند 1390, 05:06 ب.ظ
Fellow Countrymen: At this second appearing to take the oath of the presidential office there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement, somewhat in detail, of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper





برای مشاهده بقیه مطلب و دانلود فایل صوتی ادامه مطلب را بزنید.

Fellow Countrymen: At this second appearing to take the oath of the presidential office there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement, somewhat in detail, of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new could be presented. The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself, and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured. On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it; all sought to avert it.

While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war- seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came. One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union even by war, while the government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it. Neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained.

Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with or even before the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes his aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men would dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men's faces, but let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered. That of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has his own purposes. "Woe unto the world because of offenses; for it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh." If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through his appointed time, he now wills to remove, and that he gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away.

Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether." With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.

Fellow

fellows
source 1
a person that you work with or that is like you; a thing that is similar to the one mentioned

She has a very good reputation among her fellows.
Many caged birds live longer than their fellows in the wild.

source 2
somebody's fellows (British English old-fashioned)
people that you work with, study with, or who are in the same situation as you:

Wooderson's courage earned him the respect of his fellows.


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oath

oath
source 1
a formal promise to do something or a formal statement that something is true

to take/swear an oath of allegiance
Before giving evidence, witnesses in court have to take the oath (= promise to tell the truth).
All members had to swear a solemn oath never to reveal the secrets of the organization.
You are bound by oath to tell the truth.

source 2
a formal and very serious promise
 

oath of loyalty/allegiance/obedience etc (to somebody)
an oath of allegiance to the Queen
swear/take an oath
Servicemen have to swear an oath of loyalty to their country.
The president took the oath of office (=promised to do a government job well before beginning it).


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occasion

occasion
source 1
a suitable time for something

It should have been an occasion for rejoicing, but she could not feel any real joy.
I'll speak to him about it if the occasion arises (= if I get a chance).

source 2
a suitable or favourable time
 

occasion for
This was the occasion for expressions of friendship by the two presidents.

! Do not use occasion when you mean 'a time when it is possible for you to do what you want to do'. Use opportunity or chance: Do not waste this opportunity (NOT this occasion).


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extend
source 1
to make something longer or larger

to extend a fence/road/house
There are plans to extend the no-smoking area.

source 2
extended
long and detailed:

an extended analysis of the film


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pursue

pursue
source 1
to do something or try to achieve something over a period of time
 

to pursue a goal/an aim/an objective
We intend to pursue this policy with determination.
She wishes to pursue a medical career.

source 2
to continue doing an activity or trying to achieve something over a long period of time [↪ pursuit]:

She plans to pursue a career in politics.
Students should pursue their own interests, as well as do their school work.
pursue a goal/aim/objective etc
companies that pursue the traditional goal of profits
a campaign promise to pursue policies that will help the poor


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expiration

expiration_1       expiration
source 1
an ending of the period of time when an official document can be used, or when an agreement is valid
the expiry of a fixed-term contract

The licence can be renewed on expiry.

source 2
the ending of a fixed period of time


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declaration

declaration
source 1
an official or formal statement, especially about the plans of a government or an organization; the act of making such a statement

to issue/sign a declaration
the declaration of war
the Declaration of Independence (= of the United States)
The declaration asked governments to consider introducing new environmental taxes.

source 2
an important official statement about a particular situation or plan, or the act of making this statement:

a ceasefire declaration
Under Islamic law it was possible to divorce by simple declaration.
declaration of
the declaration of war

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call something forth (formal)

reaction

source 1
to produce a particular reaction

His speech called forth an angry response.

source 2
formal to produce a particular reaction:

Great works of classical music can often call forth a mixture of responses from the listener


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contest

contest
source 1
 a competition in which people try to win something

a singing contest
a talent contest
to enter/win/lose a contest

source 2
a competition or a situation in which two or more people or groups are competing with each other

contest for
the bitter contest for the Republican presidential nomination
Stone decided to hold a contest to see who could write the best song.
I only entered the contest for fun.
It is clear that the election will be a close contest.
contest between/against
the 1960 contest between Kennedy and Nixon
the 1975 Liberal leadership contest


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engross

engross
source 1
engross somebody
if something engrosses you, it is so interesting that you give it all your attention and time

As the business grew, it totally engrossed him.

source 2
if something engrosses you, it interests you so much that you do not notice anything else:

The scene was stunning, and for a time engrossed all our attention.
engross yourself in something
Take your mind off it by engrossing yourself in a good book.

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satisfactory

satisfactory
source 1
good enough for a particular purpose
Synonym: acceptable

a satisfactory explanation/answer/solution/conclusion
The work is satisfactory but not outstanding.
The existing law is not entirely/wholly satisfactory.
A bonus will be paid on satisfactory completion of the contract.
Her condition after the operation was described as ‘satisfactory’.

source 2

something that is satisfactory seems good enough for you, or good enough for a particular situation or purpose [= acceptable; ≠ unsatisfactory]:

His progress this term has been satisfactory.
satisfactory to/for
an arrangement that is satisfactory to both sides
satisfactory explanation/answer
There seems to be no satisfactory explanation.
perfectly/entirely/wholly satisfactory
None of the solutions was entirely satisfactory.
satisfactory result/outcome/resolution


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encourage

encourage
source 1
to give somebody support, courage or hope

encourage somebody in something
My parents have always encouraged me in my choice of career.
encourage somebody
We were greatly encouraged by the positive response of the public.

source 2
to give someone the courage or confidence to do something [≠ discourage]:

I want to thank everyone who has encouraged and supported me.
encourage somebody to do something
Cooder was encouraged to begin playing the guitar by his father.
encourage somebody in something
Fleur encouraged Dana in her ambition to become a model.

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venture
source 1
to risk losing something valuable or important if you are not successful at something
Synonym: gamble

It was wrong to venture his financial security on such a risky deal.

source 2
to say or do something in an uncertain way because you are afraid it is wrong or will seem stupid:

'You're on holiday here?' he ventured.
venture to do something
I ventured to ask him what he was writing.
venture an opinion/question/word etc
If we had more information, it would be easier to venture a firm opinion.
Roy ventured a tentative smile.
venture that

I ventured that the experiment was not conclusive.


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correspond

correspond
source 1
to be similar to or the same as something else

The British job of Lecturer corresponds roughly to the US Associate Professor.

source 2
to be very similar to or the same as something else

correspond to
The French 'baccalauréat' exam roughly corresponds to British Alevels.
correspond closely/exactly/precisely to something
The description of these events corresponds closely to other accounts written at the time.


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impending

impending
source 1
that is going to happen very soon
Synonym: imminent

his impending retirement
warnings of impending danger/disaster
They were all filled with a sense of impending doom.

source 2
an impending event or situation, especially an unpleasant one, is going to happen very soon

impending danger/doom/death/disaster etc
She had a sense of impending disaster.
impending changes in government legislation


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dread

dread

source 1
to be very afraid of something; to fear that something bad is going to happen

dread something
This was the moment he had been dreading.
dread doing something
I dread being sick.
dread somebody doing something
She dreads her husband finding out.
dread to do something
I dread to think what would happen if there really was a fire here.
dread that…
I both hoped and dreaded that he would come.

source 2
to feel anxious or worried about something that is going to happen or may happen:

I've got an interview tomorrow and I'm dreading it.
dread doing something
I'm dreading going back to work.
dread somebody doing something
Tim dreaded his parents finding out.
dread (that)
I'm dreading that I'll be asked to make a speech.
dread the thought/prospect of (doing) something
He dreaded the prospect of being all alone in that house.
I dread to think what will happen if they get elected (=I think it will be very bad).

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avert

avert
source 1
to turn your eyes, etc. away from something that you do not want to see

She averted her eyes from the terrible scene in front of her.

source 2
to prevent something unpleasant from happening:

The tragedy could have been averted if the crew had followed safety procedures.

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inaugural

inaugural
source 1
first, and marking the beginning of something important, for example the time when a new leader or parliament starts work, when a new organization is formed or when something is used for the first time

the President's inaugural address
the professor's inaugural lecture
the inaugural meeting of the geographical society
the inaugural flight of the space shuttle

source 2
an inaugural speech is the first given by someone who is starting an important job:

the President's inaugural address
the inaugural lecture of the new Professor of American Literature


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devote something to something

devote_something_to_something
source 1
to give an amount of time, attention, etc. to something

I could only devote two hours a day to the work.

source 2
to use a particular area, period of time, or amount of space for a specific purpose
 

devote something to something
The meeting will be devoted to health and safety issues.


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insurgent

insurgent
source 1
a person fighting against the government or armed forces of their own country
Synonym: rebel

an attack by armed insurgents
insurgent groups

insurgent adjective
Synonym: rebellious

source 2
one of a group of people fighting against the government of their own country, or against authority [= rebel]:
communist insurgents


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deprecate

deprecate
source 1
deprecate something (formal)
to feel and express strong disapproval of something

source 2
to strongly disapprove of or criticize something


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perish

perish
source 1
to be lost or destroyed

Early buildings were made of wood and have perished.

source 2
to die, especially in a terrible or sudden way:

Hundreds perished when the ship went down.


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distribute

distribute
source 1
to spread something, or different parts of something, over an area

Make sure that your weight is evenly distributed.
Cases of the disease are widely distributed through Europe.

source 2
to spread something over a large area:

Make sure the weight of the load is evenly distributed

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constitute

constitute
source 1
to be considered to be something

Does such an activity constitute a criminal offence?
The increase in racial tension constitutes a threat to our society.
His action was interpreted as constituting a threat to the community.

source 2
 to be considered to be something:

Failing to complete the work constitutes a breach of the employment contract.
The rise in crime constitutes a threat to society.


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peculiar

peculiar
source 1
belonging or relating to one particular place, situation, person, etc, and not to others

a humour that is peculiar to American sitcoms
a species of bird peculiar to Asia
He has his own peculiar style which you'll soon get used to.
the family's peculiar importance in the affair
the peculiar properties of mercury

source 2
if something is peculiar to a particular person, place, or situation, it is a feature that only belongs to that person or only exists in that place or situation:

The problem of racism is not peculiar to this country


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perpetuate

perpetuate
source 1
to make something such as a bad situation, a belief, etc. continue for a long time

to perpetuate injustice
This system perpetuated itself for several centuries.
Comics tend to perpetuate the myth that ‘boys don't cry’.

source 2
to make a situation, attitude etc, especially a bad one, continue to exist for a long time:

an education system that perpetuates the divisions in our society


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enlargement
source 1
the process or result of something becoming or being made larger

the enlargement of the company's overseas business activities
There was widespread support for EU enlargement (= the fact of more countries joining).

source 2
an increase in size or amount:
enlargement of the EU


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magnitude

magnitude
source 1
the great size or importance of something; the degree to which something is large or important

We did not realize the magnitude of the problem.
a discovery of the first magnitude

source 2
the great size or importance of something
 

magnitude of
They didn't seem to appreciate the magnitude of the problem.
of such/this/similar etc magnitude
We did not think the cuts would be of this magnitude.
an increase of this order of magnitude (=size)


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duration

duration
source 1
the length of time that something lasts or continues

The school was used as a hospital for the duration of the war.
a contract of three years' duration

source 2
the length of time that something continues:

The course is of three years' duration.
for the duration (of something)
The package includes cycle hire for the duration of your holiday.


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attain

attain
source 1
attain something
to reach a particular age, level or condition

The cheetah can attain speeds of up to 97 kph.

source 2
to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time:
More women are attaining positions of power.


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anticipate

anticipate
source 1
to see what might happen in the future and take action to prepare for it

 

anticipate something
We need someone who can anticipate and respond to changes in the fashion industry.
anticipate what, how, that, etc…
Try and anticipate what the interviewers will ask.

source 2
to expect that something will happen and be ready for it:
Sales are better than anticipated.
anticipate changes/developments
The schedule isn't final, but we don't anticipate many changes.
anticipate problems/difficulties
We don't anticipate any problems.
A good speaker is able to anticipate an audience's needs and concerns.
anticipate (that)
This year, we anticipate that our expenses will be 15% greater.
It is anticipated that the research will have many different practical applications.
anticipate doing something
I didn't anticipate having to do the cooking myself!


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cease

cease
source 1
to stop happening or existing; to stop something from happening or existing

Welfare payments cease as soon as an individual starts a job.
cease to do something
You never cease to amaze me!
cease something
They voted to cease strike action immediately.
He ordered his men to cease fire (= stop shooting).
cease doing something
The company ceased trading in June.

source 2
to stop doing something or stop happening
cease to do something
He ceased to be a member of the association.
The things people will do for charity never cease to amaze me (=I am always surprised by them).
cease doing something
the decision to cease using CFCs in packaging
The rain ceased and the sky cleared.
cease trading/production/operations etc (=stop operating a business)
The company ceased production at their Norwich plant last year.
cease fire! (=used to order soldiers to stop shooting)


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triumph

triumph
source 1
a great success, achievement or victory

one of the greatest triumphs of modern science
triumph over somebody/something
It was a personal triumph over her old rival.

source 2
an important victory or success after a difficult struggle:
Winning the championship is a great personal triumph.
triumph for
a tremendous diplomatic triumph for France
triumph over
the triumph over hardship


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astound

astound
source 1
astound somebody
to surprise or shock somebody very much
Synonym: astonish

His arrogance astounded her.
She was astounded by his arrogance.
 

Usage note: surprise
startle amaze stun astonish take somebody aback astound
These words all mean to make somebody feel surprised.
 

surprise to give somebody the feeling that you get when something happens that you do not expect or do not understand, or something that you do expect does not happen; to make somebody feel surprised:
The outcome didn't surprise me at all.

startle to surprise somebody suddenly in a way that slightly shocks or frightens them:
Sorry, I didn't mean to startle you.
The explosion startled the horse.

amaze to surprise somebody very much:
Just the huge size of the place amazed her.
stun (rather informal) (often in newspapers) to surprise or shock somebody so much that they cannot think clearly or speak
astonish to surprise somebody very much:
The news astonished everyone.
 

amaze or astonish?
These two words have the same meaning and in most cases you can use either. If you are talking about something that both surprises you and makes you feel ashamed, use astonish:
He was astonished by his own stupidity.
take somebody aback [usually passive] (especially of something negative) to surprise or shock somebody:
We were rather taken aback by her hostile reaction.
astound to surprise or shock somebody very much:
His arrogance astounded her.
It surprises somebody/startles somebody/amazes somebody/stuns somebody/astonishes somebody/takes somebody aback/astounds somebody
to surprise/startle/amaze/stun/astonish/astound somebody that…
to surprise/amaze somebody what/how…
to surprise/startle/amaze/stun/astonish/astound somebody to know/find/learn/see/hear…
to be surprised/startled/stunned into (doing) something

source 2
to make someone very surprised or shocked [= astonish]:
The judge's decision astounded everyone.

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invoke

invoke
source 1
to make a request (for help) to somebody, especially a god

source 2
to ask for help from someone more powerful than you, especially a god:
St. Genevieve is often invoked against plagues.


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wring something from/out of somebody

wring_something_from_somebody
to obtain something from somebody with difficulty, especially by putting pressure on them
Synonym: extract

A few concessions were wrung from the government.
They managed to wring the truth out of him.

source 2
to succeed in getting something from someone, but only after a lot of effort [= squeeze]
wring something from/out of somebody
They are always trying to wring additional funds from the government.
I managed to wring the information out of him.


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sweat

sweat
source 1
drops of liquid that appear on the surface of your skin when you are hot, ill/sick or afraid
Synonym: perspiration

beads of sweat
She wiped the sweat from her face.
By the end of the match, the sweat was pouring off him.
Their bodies were soaked in sweat.

source 2
drops of salty liquid that come out through your skin when you are hot, frightened, ill, or doing exercise [= perspiration]:
Ian came off the squash court dripping with sweat.
Beads of sweat appeared on his forehead.
Sweat poured down his face.
work up a sweat (=do physical exercise or hard work that makes you sweat)
Karen was on the exercise bikes, just beginning to break a sweat (=start sweating).


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Almighty

Almighty
source 1
God

to pray to the Almighty

source 2
expressions used to talk about God that emphasize His power


ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

Woe
source 1
a phrase that is used to warn somebody that there will be trouble for them if they do something or do not do something

Woe betide anyone who gets in her way!

source 2
used to warn someone that there will be trouble if they do something - especially used humorously:
Woe betide anyone who smokes in our house


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

offense

offense
source 1
an illegal act

to commit an offense
The new law makes it a criminal offense to drink alcohol in public places.
a minor/serious offense
She pleaded guilty to five traffic offenses.

source 2
the usual American spelling of offence
an illegal action or a crime

The possession of stolen property is a criminal offence.
Punishment for a first offence is a fine.
His solicitor said he committed the offence because he was heavily in debt.
The bill makes it an offence to carry a knife.
offence against sexual offences against children


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slavery

slavery
source 1
the practice of having slaves

the abolition of slavery
Opposite:freedom

source 2
the system of having slaves:
attempts to abolish slavery (=officially end it)


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

providence

providence
source 1
God, or a force that some people believe controls our lives and the things that happen to us, usually in a way that protects us
Synonym: fate

to trust in divine providence
She believed her suffering was sent by providence.

source 2
a force which is believed by some people to control what happens in our lives and to protect us:
divine providence


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

discern

discern
source 1
to know, recognize or understand something, especially something that is not obvious
Synonym:detect

 

discern something
It is possible to discern a number of different techniques in her work.
He discerned a certain coldness in their welcome.
discern how, whether, etc…
It is often difficult to discern how widespread public support is.
discern that…
I quickly discerned that something was wrong.

source 2
to notice or understand something by thinking about it carefully

discern what/where/why etc
Officials were keen to discern how much public support there was.


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

departure (from…)

departure
source 1
the act of leaving a place; an example of this

His sudden departure threw the office into chaos.
Flights should be confirmed 48 hours before departure.
They had received no news of him since his departure from the island.
Opposite: arrival

source 2
an act of leaving an organization or position

departure from
He refused to discuss his departure from the government


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

divine

divine
source 1
coming from or connected with God or a god
divine law/love/will
divine intervention (= help from God to change a situation)

source 2
coming from or relating to God or a god

divine intervention/providence/revelation/guidance etc
faith in divine providence
divine power
divine love


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

attribute

attribute
source 1
quality or feature of somebody/something

Patience is one of the most important attributes in a teacher.
The most basic attribute of all animals is consciousness.

source 2
a quality or feature, especially one that is considered to be good or useful:
What attributes should a good manager possess?


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

ascribe

ascribe
source 1
to consider that something is caused by a particular thing or person

He ascribed his failure to bad luck.

source 2
to believe that something or someone has a particular quality:
Local people ascribe healing properties to this fruit.


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

Fondly

Fondly
source 1
in a way that shows great affection
Synonym: affectionately

He looked at her fondly.
I fondly remember my first job as a reporter.

source 2
fondly imagine/believe/hope etc
to believe something that is untrue, hope for something that will probably not happen etc:

Some people still fondly believe that modern science can solve all the world's problems


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

fervent

fervent
source 1
having or showing very strong and sincere feelings about something
Synonym: ardent

a fervent admirer/believer/supporter
a fervent belief/hope/desire

fervently
adverb
She prayed fervently for his complete recovery.
We fervently hope they will succeed.

source 2
believing or feeling something very strongly and sincerely:

a fervent appeal for peace
fervent admirer/believer etc
a fervent supporter of human rights
fervently adverb


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

scourge (of somebody/something) (formal)

scourge
source 1
a person or thing that causes trouble or suffering

 

the scourge of war/disease/poverty
Inflation was the scourge of the 1970s.

source 2
something that causes a lot of harm or suffering
scourge of
the scourge of unemployment
the scourge of war


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

pass away

pass_away
source 1
to stop existing

civilizations that have passed away

source 2
to die
use this when you want to avoid saying the word 'die'


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

unrequited

Unrequited
source 1
not returned by the person that you love

source 2
unrequited love or other strong feeling is love etc that you feel for someone but that they do not feel for you

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

toil

toil
source 1
hard unpleasant work that makes you very tired

a life of hardship and toil

source 2
hard unpleasant work done over a long period:
a life of toil

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

malice
source 1
a feeling of hatred for somebody that causes a desire to harm them

He sent the letter out of malice.
She is entirely without malice.
He certainly bears you no malice (= does not want to harm you).
The ghosts are described as if they bear actual malice towards humans.

source 2
the desire to harm someone because you hate themwith malice

His eyes gleamed with malice.
sheer/pure malice
She did it out of sheer malice.
James bore her no malice (=did not feel any malice towards her).


ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

strive

strive
source 1
to try very hard to achieve something

strive (for something)
We encourage all members to strive for the highest standards.
strive (against something)
striving against corruption
strive to do something
Newspaper editors all strive to be first with a story.
She strove to find a solution that was acceptable to all.

source 2
to make a great effort to achieve something

strive to do something
I was still striving to be successful.
strive for/after
We must continue to strive for greater efficiency


دسته بندی : آموزش سطح حرفه ای ,
برچسب ها : آموزش زبان انگلیسی , آموزش حرفه ای زبان انگلیسی , آموزش مکالمه زبان انگلیسی , مکالمه حرفه ای زبان انگلیسی , آموزش مکالمه قدم به قدم حرفه ای , مکالمه حرفه ای زبان , مکالمه گام به گام حرفه ای زبان ,









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